Go to main content
5 July 2023

Levelised cost of hydrogen

Making the application of the LCOH concept more consistent and more useful


The EU is raising its ambition for renewables-based hydrogen, and the regulatory framework required is taking shape. A long pipeline of green hydrogen projects awaiting final investment decisions can finally be opened. Meanwhile, China keeps increasing its cost advantage in electrolyser manufacturing, and the US Inflation Reduction Act, which includes a highly competitive package of incentives for hydrogen production in North America, has significantly increased the pressure on the EU. Against this background, the EU is intensifying efforts to develop production support schemes for renewables-based hydrogen in the context of the new Hydrogen Bank it has announced.

Numerous studies are now published every month containing estimates for the levelised cost of hydrogen (LCOH) production. They provide policymakers with the techno-economic basis on which to make their decisions and to design appropriate support schemes. But are the costs calculated consistently across these studies? How are system boundaries drawn? Which cost drivers are important, and which can be omitted?

This publication sheds light on why the LCOH differs both between individual studies and between studies and real-world projects and provides recommendations for improving the application of the concept based on sensible simplifications that enable LCOH comparisons.

Stay informed

Sign up for our newsletter to stay informed about our ongoing work.

Subscribe now

Bibliographical data

Florian Nigbur, Martin Robinius, Patrick Wienert (all Umlaut); Matthias Deutsch (Agora Energiewende)
Publication number
Version number
Publication date

5 July 2023

Last revision

19. JUL 2023

Suggested Citation
Agora Industry and Umlaut (2023): Levelised cost of hydrogen. Making the application of the LCOH concept more consistent and more useful.
This publication was produced within the framework of the project Trans4Real.


All figures in this publication